If you have done SharePoint 2007 to 2010 upgrade, you will see the basic migration process from SharePoint 2010 to SharePoint 2013 is very similar. The three major required parts to upgrade from SharePoint Foundation 2010 to SharePoint Foundation 2013 from Microsoft technet are listed here.
Based on our experience, we have extended the above procedure into the following ten major steps with specific goals for each step. Here is the summary of each step with the goals.
Step 1 - SharePoint 2010 Farm Inventory and Reports
Step 2 - SharePoint 2010 Farm Clean Up
Step 3 - Custom Solutions Upgrade
Step 4 - 3rd party Solutions Upgrade
Step 5 - 2013 Farm Preparation
Step 6 - Migration Automation
Step 7 - Content Migration
Step 8 - Migration Exceptions Handling
Step 9 - Post Migration Activities
Step 10 - Optimization